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China's use in 2010 of export restrictions for REEs as a political instrument against Japan (over tensions in the East China Sea) further aggravated these concerns (Buijs and Sievers 2011a, 2011b).

At the time, China accounted for more than 95% of global primary REE output (Hedrick 2010, Cordier 2011).

Rather, it implies that new assessments are required.

While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain.

Readers should note that , both in the definition given above as well as in quantitative risk analysis, is not limited to being economic in nature (see Cox 2009).

It may also be societal or environmental, as discussed in more detail in section 3 below.

The concept of raw material criticality is at the core of the recent debate.A key to the current debate is the concept of 'criticality'.The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory.Therefore, our definition preserves the 'holistic' intentions of the criticality concept (e.g.Helbig aspects in their practical implementation, and this is why we specifically included them in our definition.The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production.This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced.Die aktuelle Einwahlnummer für den Chat bekommt Ihr hier auf dieser Seite. The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials.

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