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(2002), and photographs of faces used by Macchi Cassia et al. Each infant and adult participant must view all three classes of stimuli (ten pairs), presented in pairs with one being top-heavy and the other bottom-heavy.

Both the infant and the adult experiments were conducted with a remote eye tracking system that allowed for the recording of eye gaze, fixation, and direction by virtue of an infrared camera and commercially available software that automatically detected the eye position in relation to the stimulus display on the monitor.

Using area of interest analyses on fixation duration, we computed a top-heavy bias index (a number between −1 and 1) for each individual.

Each infant and adult viewed three classes of stimuli: simple geometric patterns, face-like figures, and photographs of faces.

On the other hand, if the top-heavy configuration bias is no longer present, infant's looking preference may be specifically triggered by the resemblance of real faces; there shall be no consistent looking preference across all the top-heavy figures except for the ones that are upright photographs of faces.

The adult experiment (Experiment 2) was intended to assess if there is any reliable spontaneous preference for the same set of stimuli; the purpose of testing adults is to obtain an end point for comparison as adults' performance can be regarded as the mature state of human visual behavior.

Simion, Valenza, Macchi Cassia, Turati, and Umiltà (2002) demonstrated that newborns exhibited looking preference for up-down asymmetrical non-face patterns with more elements in the upper part (i.e., top-heavy configuration).

We chose this age range because a major transition from subcortical to cortical visual pathway takes place at this period of time, marking the starting point where cortical specialization for faces begins to emerge (Halit, de Haan, & Johnson, 2003; Tzourio-Mazoyer et al., 2002).

Our predictions are given as follows: If the top-heavy bias is still present and determines infant's spontaneous looking preference, we expect to obtain reliable and consistent looking preference individually for all the top-heavy configurations across the three classes of stimuli.

Whether newborn infants perceive a rather stable world that is not a “blooming buzzing confusion” as William James (1890) has conjectured may still be debatable (Dobkins, 2009; Mehler & Dupoux, 1994; Spector & Maurer, 2009).

Yet, it is widely accepted that neonates' vision is very limited at birth and their visual functions develop substantially during the first year of life and continue to improve over several years to reach adult level (Atkinson, 1984; Teller, 1997).


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